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Breeding Gerbils: Your Essential 10-Step Guide

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Breeding gerbils is a labor of love, a journey into the world of these fascinating little creatures. In our pursuit of understanding the intricacies of gerbil breeding, it is essential to begin with the most fundamental question: Why breed gerbils? The answer is simple yet profound – it’s a passion born out of love for these delightful animals.

In this comprehensive guide on “Breeding Gerbils,” we delve into the art of gerbil breeding, emphasizing the importance of stewardship and responsible care. While some may consider breeding for profit, it’s crucial to recognize that this endeavor isn’t a path to quick riches. Instead, it demands dedication, time, financial investment, and infinite patience.

Before you embark on this fulfilling journey, we’ll explore the key considerations, from the number of gerbils you can house to the ethical responsibility of nurturing them. How many gerbils can you realistically care for and provide a happy home? And, if you choose to sell the adorable pups, you must contemplate the realities of continuous breeding, as one pair can yield up to twelve litters a year, each with the potential for up to eight babies.

As we delve deeper into the comprehensive guide, you’ll discover how to select the perfect breeding pair, how to create an ideal breeding environment, and the intricacies of mating, birthing, and raising gerbil pups. With love, care, and proper guidance, your gerbil breeding journey can be a rewarding and joyful experience.

So, if your heart resonates with the idea of breeding gerbils for the sheer love of these remarkable creatures, join us in this enlightening exploration, and let’s embark on this wonderful adventure together. In the following sections, we will offer insights, advice, and practical tips to help you become a responsible and successful gerbil breeder.

Selecting the Breeding Pair

In the world of gerbil breeding, one fundamental decision reigns supreme: the choice of your breeding pair. The success and satisfaction of your entire gerbil-breeding venture hinge upon this critical selection process. Here, we unveil the art and science of choosing the perfect pair, whether you opt for pet store gerbils or seek a reputable breeder.

  • Health: The foundation of your gerbil breeding enterprise should always be built upon health. A robust breeding pair is essential for producing healthy offspring. Look for gerbils that have never shown signs of illness, preferably those with a clean bill of health from their early days. Steer clear of runts or gerbils that have battled health issues as pups, especially respiratory infections. These fragile beginnings may foreshadow potential health concerns in future generations.
  • Temperament: A friendly and docile nature is a precious trait to nurture in your gerbil lineage. Gerbils that readily approach you, eagerly sit on your hand, and beg to come out of their enclosure are ideal candidates for breeding. Remember, their temperament is often inherited, ensuring that their progeny will also exhibit this endearing people-friendliness. Beyond this, look for gerbils that are not just people-oriented but also ‘gerbil-gentle.’ Gerbil’s gentleness indicates their ease of introduction to other gerbils, especially young pups, and their ability to stay within the social clan, making the breeding process smoother and safer.
  • Colour: While health and temperament are paramount, the aspect of colour should not be overlooked. While gerbil genetics can be complex, understanding the potential colour outcomes of your breeding pair can be advantageous, especially if you intend to sell the offspring. Some colours are more popular and easier to place in new homes, such as REW/PEW (Red-Eyed White/Pink-Eyed White), plain Agouti, and solid Black gerbils. In contrast, spotted patterns, rich colours, and colour points tend to be in high demand. Before pairing your gerbils, it’s beneficial to grasp basic gerbil genetics to predict the colours that the pairing might produce.
  • Pet Store vs. Breeder: When contemplating your breeding pair, you have two primary sources to choose from—pet stores and breeders. If you decide to acquire your gerbils from a pet store, consider a strategic approach. Purchase the male and female gerbils from two different pet stores located a significant distance apart. This ensures that the gerbils are not related, minimizing the risk of inbreeding.

Alternatively, opting for a breeder offers distinct advantages. You have the opportunity to meet the parents of the gerbils you’re interested in. This personal interaction allows you to assess their temperaments and compatibility with your breeding goals. You can also inquire about the breeder’s track record, seeking information on the overall fatality rate of their pups, the health of the breeding pair, and any incidents of breeding-related problems.

Request a pedigree to understand the genetic lineage of your chosen gerbils. Honest and transparent answers from the breeder are invaluable as they demonstrate a commitment to raising healthy gerbils.

This meticulous selection process paves the way for a rewarding gerbil-breeding experience. Whether you choose pet store or breeder gerbils, prioritize health, temperament, and colour alongside a judicious evaluation of the breeding source. Your commitment to excellence in this stage of the journey sets the tone for successful gerbil breeding.

Breeding Environment

As you embark on the fulfilling journey of breeding gerbils, ensuring that your gerbil parents have the right environment is crucial for the successful rearing of their offspring. After selecting the perfect breeding pair, it’s time to prepare a conducive setting where they can raise their young in peace and safety.

  • Choosing the Right Location: Your gerbil breeding pair should be housed in a tranquil area of your home, away from heavy traffic and sudden loud noises. While it’s important to create a peaceful environment, you also want the pups to become accustomed to everyday sounds and human presence. Position their tank in a way that provides them with a degree of privacy from other animals or tanks, giving your gerbils the sense of security they need.
  • The Ideal Pairing: In the world of gerbils, it’s essential to remember that they follow a matriarchal society. Breeding should always involve one male and one female in a single tank. This pairing establishes an intimate bond and is the safest arrangement for breeding gerbils. Introducing more than one adult female into the same tank can result in fierce and even fatal territorial battles.
  • Family Support: Breeding gerbils is a family affair, and the presence of the father is vital for the well-being of the pups. Leaving the father in the tank to assist the mother in raising the babies is a practice that reduces stress on the mother, particularly if she’s a first-time or older mom. In case you need to separate the breeding pair, consider leaving one of the daughters from the previous litter in the tank to provide extra support to the mother.
  • Simplicity and Safety: A minimalist approach is best when setting up your gerbil breeding environment. To avoid common accidents that can lead to pup injuries or fatalities, use only about three inches of carefresh, unscented toilet tissue, a low-hung water bottle for the pups to access, and a towel draped over the tank. These simple elements provide all the essentials your gerbils need. Avoid adding materials like pet store fluff or fibres, as they can pose dangers to the pups. Gerbils have been known to get tangled up in these materials, leading to tragic consequences.

Choosing Bedding Materials: When it comes to bedding, corncob is often considered one of the safest options. However, it might make gerbils feel more exposed and skittish due to the lack of tunnelling or hiding places. To provide a balance, you can use a wooden or cardboard nest box. Some breeders prefer a mix of Carefresh and corncob, using a layer of corncob with two inches of Carefresh on top. If you notice any signs of respiratory infections, you can switch to corncob bedding and unscented toilet tissue for a few days.

Creating a comfortable and safe breeding environment for your gerbil pair is a vital step in the breeding process. By adhering to these guidelines, you’ll set the stage for the successful growth and development of a new gerbil family, ensuring their health and well-being every step of the way.

Special Care for Pregnant Gerbils

During the pregnancy of a gerbil, special care is essential to ensure the well-being of both the mother and her developing pups. While these little creatures are generally low-maintenance, there are some crucial considerations to keep in mind to ensure a healthy pregnancy and successful delivery.

  • Handle with Care: Pregnant gerbils are delicate, especially as they approach the final days of their pregnancy. Handle them gently, avoiding any sudden movements or accidental drops. The mother’s comfort and safety are paramount during this time.
  • Nutritional Needs: Providing your pregnant gerbil with the right nutrition is crucial. Offer a high-quality gerbil food with a protein content of at least 15%. A diet rich in protein helps support the mother’s health and the growth of her pups. Popular choices among breeders include L&M Vita Vittles Gold. Some breeders also supplement the mother’s diet with additional protein sources, such as dry kitten food or scrambled eggs. It’s a good practice to remove any whole peanuts from the food to prevent choking hazards.
  • Constant Hydration: A pregnant and nursing gerbil requires a consistent supply of water. Regularly check the water bottle to ensure it is filled and functioning correctly, at least once a day. If the water bottle runs dry, the mother gerbil may be forced to resort to distressing measures, such as sacrificing one of her pups to obtain the necessary liquid to continue nursing the rest of the litter.

By following these guidelines, you can provide the special care that pregnant gerbils need, making sure they remain comfortable and well-nourished during this crucial phase of reproduction. Proper attention to their needs will contribute to a successful and healthy outcome for both mother and pups, ensuring a happy and thriving gerbil family.

Mating and Birthing of Gerbils

Understanding the intricacies of gerbil mating and the birthing process is crucial for anyone considering breeding gerbils. These fascinating creatures, known for their playful and social nature, have unique reproductive patterns that are essential to comprehend for successful breeding.

  • When Do Gerbils Mate: Typically, gerbils reach sexual maturity around three months of age. If one of the pair is older or an experienced breeder, mating can occur within a few weeks. Gerbil mating rituals usually take place during the early evening and involve a two-hour process of chase, playful “tag,” and mutual inspection of their undersides. This elaborate dance culminates in the actual mating. Unlike many animals, a female gerbil can produce pups until she reaches two years of age, while a male can father offspring throughout its lifetime.
  • Gestation Period: The gestation period for gerbils, when the female is pregnant, is approximately 24 days, although it might extend to 28 days. It is essential to mark your calendar from the day of mating to anticipate the arrival of the new litter.
  • Pregnancy in Gerbils: Interestingly, pregnant gerbils do not exhibit visible signs of their condition until a few days before giving birth. At this stage, the mother gerbil may appear heavier and develop a pear-shaped body with a noticeable bulge in the abdominal area.
  • The Birthing Process: When gerbil babies, or pups, are being born, it’s best not to disturb the parents. Observing from a distance is acceptable, but it’s crucial not to get too close or disrupt the tank, handle the parents, or the newborns. During birth, the female gerbil will reach down from underneath, pull out each baby, clean it, and consume the placenta.

It’s common for the gerbil pair to mate again during or immediately after the birthing process, which can last for several hours. Don’t worry if the babies are left unattended during this time; they are generally fine. The mother gerbil will eventually gather her newborns into a nest, although this might not occur until after the birthing and mating phases are complete.

Understanding the unique mating and birthing behaviors of gerbils is essential for anyone interested in breeding these charming rodents. By being well-informed about the process, breeders can provide the necessary care and attention to ensure a smooth and successful gerbil reproduction journey.

The First Few Days of Gerbil Parenthood

Gerbils are known to be exceptional parents, and under normal circumstances, they would never harm their offspring, except in extreme situations such as when their water source runs dry. However, there are certain aspects of caring for gerbil pups in the first few days that breeders should be aware of to ensure the safety and well-being of the newborns.

  • Handling Stillborn or Deceased Pups: If a baby gerbil is stillborn or dies shortly after birth, the parents have an instinct to “clean up” to maintain the cleanliness of the tank. To prevent this, it is crucial to promptly remove any deceased pups.
  • Single Pups and Stimulating Milk Flow: When only one pup is born or survives, it usually cannot stimulate sufficient milk flow from the mother on its own. In such cases, fostering with a litter of young pups from a local AGS breeder can be the best solution.
  • Temporary Separation of the Father: After birthing, the mother gerbil often temporarily excludes the father from the nest for 24-48 hours while she focuses on caring for the babies. Occasionally, a male gerbil might try to take a pup or two into his nest for company, and these can be gently returned to the mother.
  • Cleanliness and Safe Handling: Always ensure your hands are clean before handling the pups. While gerbils typically tolerate the scent of their human caregivers, foreign odors, such as soot, other gerbils, or stale litter, could lead the parents to reject or even attack the babies.
  • Creating a Comfortable Environment: If the mother appears distracted, exhibiting behaviors like running around, digging, or scratching in the corners, it’s advisable to provide a quiet room, drape a towel over half of the tank, and offer unscented toilet tissue. You may also want to warm one corner of the tank slightly but be cautious not to make it too hot. A clamp lamp with a 40-watt grow light positioned several inches from the tank can help regulate the temperature, ensuring it does not exceed 85 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Relocation of the Litter: In some cases, a mother gerbil may move her litter from one corner of the tank to another, especially if she feels anxious or threatened. This behavior is normal and should not be a cause for concern. Typically, after a few days, the mother will settle with her gerbil pups in one corner of the tank.
  • Maintaining Stability: It is vital in the initial days after birth not to make any changes to the environment. Avoid cleaning the tank, changing its location, introducing new toys or objects, or removing the father gerbil. Any alterations may disrupt the mother’s routine and cause her to spend unnecessary time rearranging the nest, which can be detrimental to the pups.
  • Monitoring with Caution: While it’s important to check on the baby gerbils two or three times a day from the first day of their birth, it’s equally essential to allow the mother and father to raise the litter without interference. Female and male gerbils are typically excellent parents. In the first couple of days, it’s possible for a pup to get separated from the nest. If this occurs, return the pup to the nest, ensuring your hands are clean.

Understanding the initial days of gerbil parenthood is crucial for providing the best care to both the mother and her newborns. By being well-informed and attentive, breeders can ensure a smooth transition for these tiny, adorable creatures into the world.

The First Few Weeks of Gerbil Care

Caring for gerbil pups during their first few weeks of life is a delicate and crucial task that requires patience and careful attention. As the days pass, the baby gerbils undergo various stages of development, and breeders need to adapt to their changing needs.

  • Providing Distractions for Parents: Before handling the pups, it’s beneficial to give the parents a bit of cardboard or some food to keep them occupied for a few minutes, which can help make the transition smoother.
  • Introducing Human Contact: Handling the pups should commence when they start developing a light coat of fuzz, typically around day 5-7. At this age, gerbil babies are quick and may wriggle out of your hand. Always take them out with both hands, ensuring they are securely held above a pillow or blanket.
  • Daily Short Sessions: During this period, it’s advisable to handle the pups for a few minutes once a day. This helps the baby gerbils become accustomed to the scent and touch of human hands. After exploring, they might even rest comfortably in your cupped hands.
  • Sexing the Gerbils: Between 7-10 days, you can determine the gender of the gerbils using the “nipple method.” Female gerbils have noticeable nipples, while males do not. Keep a record of the colors and genders of your litter at this point, as it will be helpful when you separate and place them at around six weeks.
  • Identifying Colors: From 10-20 days, the pups will develop a fuller coat, making it easier to identify their colors. Reference tools like the AGS Color Strips can be useful for color determination.
  • Increased Comfort with Handling: At this stage, the baby gerbils become increasingly comfortable with human interaction. They may sit up, groom themselves, and even try to climb up your sleeve. You can now handle them one or two times a day for several minutes. Nonetheless, continue to be cautious, as they might still crawl off your hands, especially as they become more mobile.
  • Eye Opening and Caution: Around 17-21 days, the pups will begin to open their eyes. It may take a few days for all of them to have both eyes open. If any pup’s eyes remain closed, gently rub the closed eye with a warm, damp cloth. Exercise extreme care on the day the eyes open and in the following days. The newfound vision makes the pups jittery and prone to sudden movements. They may not recognize you as they did before, so continued interaction is essential. Take them out a few times a day, one at a time, and ensure they are completely enclosed in your hands to prevent them from darting away.
  • Transition to Friendliness: After a few days, around 24 days of age, the pups typically become more relaxed and friendly again. You can handle them without worrying about them leaping off your hands. Encourage their interaction in the early evening when they are most active. Let them climb onto your hand, up your arm, and onto your shoulder. If the parent gerbils are already familiar with this routine, the pups will readily follow suit, and soon you’ll have a delightful line of gerbil pups enjoying your companionship.

Mastering the art of caring for gerbil pups during their first few weeks is key to raising well-adjusted, friendly gerbils. By adapting to their changing behaviors and needs, breeders can create a positive and interactive environment for these tiny creatures.

Weaning and Addressing Respiratory Infection in Gerbil Pups

Weaning and managing health issues in gerbil pups are essential aspects of responsible breeding. As baby gerbils grow, they undergo a gradual weaning process and can encounter health challenges like respiratory infections.

Weaning Process: At about three weeks old, gerbil pups will begin to explore solid foods, but they still depend on their mother’s milk until nearly five weeks of age. Weaning is a two-week gradual transition during which breeders introduce weaning foods. Suitable weaning options include peeled sunflower seeds, roasted peanut bits, Cheerios or Cornflakes, uncooked oatmeal oats, and soft seeds such as canary seeds.

It’s a delightful sight to see a three-week-old pup holding a giant Cheerio between its tiny paws. To facilitate this process, ensure that the water bottle is positioned low enough for the pups to access it. Spraying the side of the tank near the water bottle with water droplets can help teach the babies to drink from it.

Between three and five weeks of age, you can begin introducing cardboard items into the tanks, such as toilet tissue rolls, half-paper towel tubes, and small, lightweight boxes. It’s crucial to avoid heavy or large boxes that could potentially crush or suffocate a pup that crawls beneath them. Removing the bottom of the boxes or using boxes that the pups can gnaw through quickly is advisable.

Managing Respiratory Infections: Respiratory infections in gerbil pups are a concerning health issue that should be addressed promptly. Signs of respiratory infection include clicking sounds, heavy breathing (evidenced by the sides moving in and out), puffed fur, glazed eyes, a scrawny tail, weight loss, and lagging growth compared to the rest of the litter.

To manage respiratory infections, it’s recommended to have a breeding emergency kit that includes three crucial components:

  1. Powered Kitten Replacement Milk and Dispenser: This serves as a supplementary feeding option for sick pups. You can use an infant medicine dispenser or an eyedropper to administer the milk.
  2. Clamp Lamp with 40-Watt Grow Bulb and Thermometer: Maintaining the right temperature is essential for the well-being of pups with respiratory infections. Warm one corner of the tank to a maximum of 85 degrees Fahrenheit to create a comfortable environment for the affected pups.
  3. Ornyacycline: This is a tetracycline-based medication available in pet stores, typically in the bird section. Administer Ornacycline to the affected pups via the water bottle with drops applied directly to their lips, three times a day. Avoid mixing the medication with milk, as it can reduce its effectiveness.

If a pup appears to be a runt or is falling behind in growth, consider supplementing their feed with kitten milk replacement. Be sure to wipe off any excess milk with a warm, damp paper towel, as it can harden and become challenging to remove. By attentively managing the weaning process and promptly addressing health concerns like respiratory infections, breeders can ensure the well-being of their gerbil pups and maintain a healthy breeding environment.

Separating and Placing Gerbil Pups

As a responsible breeder, knowing when and how to separate and place gerbil pups is crucial to ensure their well-being and a smooth transition to new homes.

  • Timing of Separation: Typically, a new litter of gerbil pups arrives when the current litter is about five weeks old, though this can vary between 4-8 weeks after the first litter. Observing the mother gerbil is essential. While most mother gerbils are comfortable having both older and younger litters in the same tank, occasionally, the presence of older pups can stress or threaten the mother, leading her to try to drive them away. Since the babies have no other place to go and tend to return to the mother for security, it’s important to remove the older pups immediately if this occurs. One or two older pups can be left with the mother, depending on her comfort.
  • Ideal Placement Age: It’s advisable to wait until the pups are around six weeks old before placing them in new homes. By this age, the pups are more robust, have had some time away from their parents to adjust, and are easier to sex. At around four weeks of age, both male and female gerbil pups may look identical. However, by five to six weeks, the testicles on the male gerbils become apparent, allowing for accurate gender differentiation.
  • Placement Process: When placing the gerbil pups, it’s essential to follow specific steps for a smooth transition. Start by requesting anyone who handles the pups to wash their hands thoroughly to ensure cleanliness and hygiene. Provide the new owners with care information, which may include resources like the AGS pamphlet, and a mixture of weaning food combined with adult gerbil food to facilitate their initial dietary transition. Just before placement, double-check the gender of the pups to avoid any mix-ups. Additionally, consider asking the new owners to bring in their gerbil housing setup to confirm that it’s complete and safe for the incoming pups. This step helps ensure the new babies will be provided with a secure and suitable environment.

By following these guidelines and making well-informed decisions regarding the timing of separation and placement, breeders can ensure that gerbil pups transition smoothly to new homes, receive proper care, and thrive in their new environments.

The Golden Rules of Gerbil Breeding

  • Select Your Breeding Pair Carefully: Success in gerbil breeding begins with choosing the right breeding pair. Prioritize health, temperament, and desirable colour traits.
  • Provide High-Quality Nutrition: Ensure that your gerbils receive a well-balanced diet with at least 15% protein. Offering high-quality gerbil food is essential for their well-being.
  • Maintain a Stress-Free Environment: Create a calm and low-stress setting conducive to breeding. Limit disturbances, loud noises, and sudden changes in their surroundings.
  • One Female per Tank: Never breed with more than one adult female in the same tank, as female gerbils can become territorial and aggressive.
  • Keep It Simple: Maintain a simple breeding tank setup to minimize risks and accidents. Avoid elaborate structures that could harm the pups.
  • Choose Safe Bedding: Corncob bedding is a safe option for breeding gerbils. It minimizes risks associated with other bedding materials.
  • Consistency is Key: After the pups are born, avoid making any changes to their environment. Stability is crucial for their well-being.
  • Dad’s Help Matters: Leaving the father or an older daughter with the mother to raise the babies can ease the process and reduce stress on the mother.
  • Handle Blind Pups with Care: When taking blind gerbil pups out of the tank, make sure they are completely enclosed in your hands and hold them directly over a soft surface like a pillow or blanket.
  • Cautious with Newly Opened Eyes: Gerbil pups tend to be jittery when they first open their eyes. Handle them carefully during this period to prevent any accidents.
  • Promptly Address Health Issues: Be vigilant in treating respiratory infections or slowed growth during the weaning process.
  • Enjoy the Journey: Lastly, take time to enjoy and bond with the gerbil pups. Regular, short, and positive interactions with them throughout their development will strengthen their socialization.

By following these golden rules, you can enhance the chances of a successful and enjoyable gerbil breeding experience.

Effective Record Keeping in Gerbil Breeding

Recording and maintaining essential information is a fundamental aspect of responsible gerbil breeding. By keeping thorough records, you can track lineage, monitor health, and ensure proper care for your gerbils. Here is a structured approach for effective record keeping:

  1. Individual Gerbil Records:
    1. Name: Assign a unique name or identifier to each gerbil for easy reference.
    2. AGS Registered Number: If applicable, note the gerbil’s American Gerbil Society (AGS) registration number.
    3. Date of Birth: Document the gerbil’s date of birth for age tracking.
    4. Parentage: Include the names or identifiers of both parents for pedigree purposes.
    5. Color and Genetics: Record the gerbil’s color and any relevant genetic information.
    6. Breeding or Non-Breeding Status: Specify whether the gerbil is designated for breeding or is a non-breeding pet.
    7. Cage Mate or Mate: Identify the gerbil’s cage mate or breeding partner.
    8. Date of Death: If applicable, note the date of the gerbil’s passing.
    9. Cause of Death: Document the cause of death, if known.
  2. Breeding Pairs Records:
    • Pair Names: List the names or identifiers of the breeding pair.
    • AGS Registration Number: Include the AGS registration numbers of both gerbils.
    • Number of Litters: Track the total number of litters produced by the pair.
    • AGS Litter Registration Numbers: Assign AGS registration numbers to each litter.
    • Number of Pups per Litter: Record the number of pups born in each litter.
    • Date of Birth: Document the birthdate of each litter.
    • Colors: Specify the colors of the pups in each litter.
    • Gestation Period: Calculate and note the gestation period for each litter.
    • Survival Rate: Keep a record of how many pups from each litter survived.
  3. Litter Records:
    • AGS Litter Number: Assign a unique AGS registration number to each litter.
    • Date of Birth: Document the birthdate of the litter.
    • Parentage: Include the names or identifiers of the parents.
    • Color and Genetics: Record the colors and relevant genetic information of the pups.
    • Health: Monitor the health of the litter and document any health-related observations.
    • Date of Death: If applicable, note the date of death of any pups and the cause.
  4. Adopters Records:
    • Adopters’ Information: Collect adopters’ names, addresses, phone numbers, and email addresses.
    • Pup Allocation: Specify which pup(s) were adopted by each individual or family.
    • Additional Comments: Include any comments or notes, such as whether the adopter has a website or special requirements.
  5. Pedigrees:
    • Maintain a copy of the pedigree for each gerbil, which shows the lineage and genetic history.
  6. Database or Notebook:
    • Choose a suitable method for recording and storing this information. You can use a digital database on your computer or maintain handwritten records in a dedicated notebook.

By implementing this structured record-keeping system, you can better manage your gerbil breeding program and ensure the well-being of your gerbil colony. It provides valuable insights into your gerbils’ history and helps you make informed breeding decisions.

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Dr. Chandrika

About Me

I am a veterinary doctor who is passionate about providing top-quality care for pets and their families. My mission is to share my knowledge and expertise with pet owners through my blog, petearnest.com.


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